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Business expansion can be achieved through internal investments, and also externally through combinations of separate business entities. The profit motive is the driving force behind most consolidations. Combinations take several forms, such as:

  • Holding companies
  • Mergers
  • Consolidations

How It Occurs

A combination may be arranged through negotiations between management including boards of directors, with ratification by shareholders, or through tender offerings where a direct appeal is made to the shareholders.

Consider Taxes

A target company may be acquired through the purchase of its shares, or by purchase of its assets. Tax considerations play an important role in determining exactly how a merger or acquisition is to be effected.

For Immediate Effect

Business combinations have an immediate effect on reported earnings per share for the shareholders of both business entities, and possible on the shares' price-earnings ratios and market prices.


Earnings per share may grow if a firm whose shares trade at a high price-earnings ratio acquires another firm whose shares trade at lower price-earnings ratios. Instead of just the immediate effects on earnings per share, an acquisition should be seen as an investment; and the capital budgeting criteria should be based on discounted cash flow analyses.

Depend on the Experts

Through industry expertise and a wise approach, the Grant Thornton Limited team can provide you with an independent assessment and evaluation. We review and analyze the operational and financial viability of a merger or acquisition. Call us for more information.